Sunday, September 13, 2015

Drilling fluids processing glossary K

Kelly. A heavy square or hexagonal pipe that passes through rollers in a bushing on the drill floor to transmit rotational torque to the drill string.
Key seat. A section of a hole, usually of abnormal deviation and relatively soft formation, that has been eroded or worn by drill pipe to a size smaller than the tool joints or collars of the drill string. This keyhole-type configuration resists passage of the shoulders of these pipe upset (box) configurations when pulling out of the hole.
Kick. Situation caused when the annular hydrostatic pressure in a drilling well temporarily (and usually relatively suddenly) becomes less than the formation, or pore, pressure in a permeable downhole section. A kick occurs before control of the fluid intrusion is totally lost. A blowout is an uncontrolled influx of formation fluid into the well bore. See: blowout, kill fluid.
Kill fluid. A fluid built with a specific density aimed at controlling a kick or blowout. See: galena.
Kill line. A line connected to the annulus below the blowout preventers for the purpose of pumping into the annulus while the preventers are closed.
Killing a well. (1) Bringing a well kick under control. (2) The procedure of circulating a fluid into a well to overbalance formation fluid pressure after the bottom-hole pressure has been less than formation fluid pressure. See: kick, blowout, kill fluid.
Kilowatt-hour. Horsepower-hour (hp-hr) and kilowatt-hour (kW-hr) are
units of work.
1 hp-hr =1,980,000 ft-lb = 2545 Btu
1 hp-hr =0.7457 kW-hr
1 kW-hour = 1.341 hp-hr= 3413 Btu = 2,655,000 ft-lb:
Kinematic viscosity. The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is the ratio of the viscosity (e.g., cP in g/cm-sec) to the density (e.g., g/cc) using consistent units. In several common commercial viscometers, the kinematic viscosity is measured in terms of the time of efflux, in seconds, of a fixed volume of liquid through a standard capillary tube or orifice. See: marsh funnel viscosity.
In laminar flow, the fluid moves in plates or sections with a differential velocity across the front of the flow profile that varies from zero at the wall to a maximum toward the center for flow. These fluid elements flow along fixed stream lines that are parallel to the walls of the channel of flow. Laminar flow is the first stage of flow in a Newtonian fluid. It is the second stage of flow in a Bingham plastic fluid. This type of motion is also called parallel, streamline, or viscous flow. See: plug flow, parallel flow, turbulent flow.