Thursday, September 10, 2015

drilling fluids glossary I&J

ID. Inside diameter of a pipe.
Ideal nozzle. Orifice that will pass fluid without friction loss, theoretically.
Impeller. A spinning disc in a centrifugal pump with protruding vanes used to accelerate the fluid in the pump casing.
Indicator. Substances in acid/base titrations that in solution change color or become colorless as the hydrogen ion concentration reaches a definite value. These values vary with the indicator. In other titrations such as chloride, hardness, and other determinations, these substances change color at the end of the reaction.Common indicators are phenolphthalein, methyl orange, and potassium chromate.
Inertia. Force that makes a moving particle tend to maintain its direction or a particle at rest to remain at rest.
Inhibited drilling fluid. A drilling fluid having an aqueous phase with a chemical composition that tends to retard and even prevent (inhibit) appreciable hydration (swelling) or dispersion formation clays and shales through chemical and/or physical reactions. See: calcium-treated drilling fluids, saltwater drilling fluid.
Inhibited mud. See: inhibited drilling fluid.
Initial gel. See: gel strength.
Inlet. The opening through which the feed mud enters a solids-control device. See: feed inlet, feed opening.
Interfacial tension. The force required to break the surface definition between two immiscible liquids. The lower the interfacial tension between the two phases of an emulsion, the greater the ease of emulsification. When the values approach zero, emulsion formation is spontaneous. See: emulsion, surface tension.
Intermediate (solids). Particles whose diameter is between 250 and 2000 microns.
Intercalation. A shale stabilization mechanism that involves penetration of a foreign material, such as a glycol, between clay lamellae in a shale to retard interaction of the clay with water.
Interstitial water. Water contained in the interstices or voids of formations.
Intrinsic safety. A feature of an electrical device or circuit in which any spark or thermal effect from the electrical device or circuit is incapable of causing ignition of a mixture of flammable or combustible material in air.
Invert drilling fluid. See: invert oil emulsion drilling fluid.
Invert oil emulsion drilling fluid. A water-in-oil emulsion in which water (sometimes containing sodium or calcium chloride) is the dispersed phase, and diesel oil, crude oil, or some other oil is the phase. Water addition increases the emulsion viscosity, and oil reduces the emulsion viscosity. The water content exceeds 5% by volume. See. oil-based drilling fluid
Iodine number. The number indicating the amount of iodine absorbed by oils, fats, and waxes, giving a measure of the unsaturated linkages present. Generally, the higher the iodine number, the more severe the destructive action of the oil on rubber.
Ions. Molecular condition due to loss or gain of electrons. Acids, bases, and salts electrolytes), when dissolved in certain solvents, especially water, are more or less dissociated into electrically charged ions or parts of the molecules. Loss of electrons results in positive charges, producing a cation. A gain of electrons in the formation of an anion, with negative charge. The valence of an ion is equal to the number of charges borne by the ion. See: anion, cation.
Irreducible fraction. See: adsorbed liquid, bound liquid.
Jet. See: eductor.
Jet hopper. A device that has a jet that facilitates the addition of drillingfluid additives to the system. See: hopper, mud hopper.
Jetting. The process of periodically removing a portion of the water, drilling fluid, and/or solids from the pits, usually by means of pumping through a jet nozzle to agitate the drilling fluid while simultaneously removing it from the pit.
Jones effect. The net surface tension of all salt solutions first decreases with an increase in concentration, passes through a minimum, and then increases as the concentration is raised. The initial decrease is called the Jones effect.